Champagne, the best known sparkling wine is a collective heritage protected by the French. Established on June 29, 1936. The name ‘champagne’ couldn’t be given to any sparkling wine. The name is for sparkling wines produced exclusively with Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay grapes grown, harvested and made into wine in the Champagne region of France.
The method ‘champenoise’ is a process that begins with first fermentation in tanks/barrels and second fermentation in the bottle. The second fermentation is the aging process with a pressure between 6-7 atmospheres. There are 7 types of champagne, classified by how much sugar is added after the bottles are disgorged: Brut Nature, Extra Brut, Brut, Extra-Dry, Dry, Semi-Dry and Sweet.
Cava: the most widely sold Cava was first made in Sant Sadurní d’Anoia (Barcelona), 19th century. It is made mainly with the Macabeo, Xarel·lo and Parellada varieties and following the champenoise method.
Fermentation in the bottle reaches a pressure of up to 4 atmospheres. The DO, established in 1972 is the only Denomination of Origin that is spread across regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Currently, cava production is made up of 160 municipalities, most in Catalonia, some in La Rioja, the Basque Country, Navarra, Aragón, Extremadura and Valencia. Like champagne there are 7 types of cava linked to their sugar content.
Prosecco: the world’s best-selling sparkling wine Prosecco is a sparkling wine made in a Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC), established in 2009 to define its identity in the Italian region of Veneto. It is made using the Glera grape variety and is unlike champagne and cava.
It is made using the Charmat method. Instead of undergoing second fermentation in the bottle, this happens in stainless steel tanks. A much less laborious and cheaper production method that has made this the most widely sold sparkling wine in the world in recent times. Once bottled, the pressure in the bottle reaches 2.5-3 atmospheres and depending on the sugar level, there are 3 types of prosecco: Brut, Extra-Dry and Dry.